Liquid water on Saturn moon
spacecraft sees signs of geysers on icy Enceladus
(videos and slide shows included). The original site
, from NASA
Doesn't that picture looks as if this moon and most specially our own moon were bombarded in the past by an outer space rain in the form of big comets or semi-melted comets?Far Side of the Moon
I have always been interested in the findings of water in the outer space. Can you imagine our own Universe as a gigantic cell in suspension?
To see a great artistic rendition of our small Universe swimming like a cell inside the infinite waters of the Macrospace
, go to Teleological
.Water in the MoonMoon Water... in reach of human explorersWater in MarsMars Reconnaissance Orbiter Follows the WaterWater
, Jupiter's moonJupiter's Tantalizing Moon ...Under the Ice of Europa
An Orbit of Frozen Water, like giant ice cubes, Pluto and the Kuiper belt
, source for comets:Pluto: The Ice PlanetPluto and Charon : Ice Worlds on the Ragged Edge of the Solar SystemIcy World Beyond PlutoHuge rock-ice body circles SunDr. Comet [Fred Whipple], 95, still hunting space ice bouldersSmall Water Comets?A Taste for Comet WaterWater forming NebulaeWater fountains in the skyStellar Water Fountain May Shed Light on Nebula Formation
From the Space Infrared Telescope ISO
, European Space AgencyCosmic water traced by Europe's space telescope ISO
"Cosmological Considerations On The General Theory of Relativity
" ["Kosmologische Betrachtungen Zur Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie," Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
, 1917]. Albert Einstein.
"...the universe according to Newton is finite... The Boundary Conditions According to the General Theory of Relativity... The universal continuum in respect of its spatial dimensions is to be viewed as a self-contained continuum of finite spatial (three-dimensional) volume... both the general postulate of relativity and the fact of the small stellar velocities are compatible with the hypothesis of a spatially finite universe... If we assume the universe to be spatially finite... it follows that the curvature of the required space must be constant... the required finite continuum... will be a spherical space... The curvature of space is variable in time and place, according to the distribution of matter, but we may roughly approximate to it by means of a spherical space... It is to be emphasized... that a positive curvature of space is given by our results...
"Do Gravitational Fields Play An Essential Part In The Structure Of The Elementary Particles Of Matter
" ["Spielen Gravitationsfelder im Aufber der materiellen Elementarteilchen eine wesentliche Rolle?", Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
, 1919]. Albert Einstein.
"...As I have shown in the previous paper, the general theory of relativity requires that the universe be spatially finite... As in the preceding paper I shall again show that with a uniform distribution of matter, a spherical world is compatible with the equations... curvature scalar in the three-dimensional space... our fundamental equations permit the idea of a spherical universe …it is known (Cf. H. Weyl, “Raum, Zeit, Materie,” § 33) that this system is satisfied by a (three-dimensional) spherical universe... spherically symmetrical..."Relativity: The Special and General Theory
. Albert Einstein. 1920. Methuen & Co Ltd.
First Published: December, 1916. Translated: Robert W. Lawson.
"... the results of calculation indicate that if matter be distributed uniformly, the universe would necessarily be spherical (or elliptical)... quasi-spherical... necessarily finite... Hubble showed, by a special investigation of the extra-galactic nebulae ("milky ways"), that the spectral lines emitted showed a red shift which increased regularly with the distance of the nebulae. This can be interpreted in regard to our present knowledge only in the sense of Doppler's principle, as an expansive motion of the system of stars in the large — as required, according to Friedman, by the field equations of gravitation. Hubble's discovery can, therefore, be considered to some extent as a confirmation of the theory..."The Meaning of Relativity
. Albert Einstein. 1921. The Stafford Little Lectures. Princeton University Press
"Finiteness of the Universe... If a portion of a surface is observed by the eye to be practically plane, it does not at all follow that the whole surface has the form of a plane; the surface might just as well be a sphere, for example, of sufficiently large radius... The possibility seems to be particularly satisfying that the universe is spatially bounded and… is of constant curvature, being either spherical or elliptical... a closed surface… this idea of Match’s corresponds only to a finite universe, bounded in space, and not to a quasi-Euclidean, infinite universe. From the standpoint of epistemology it is more satisfying to have the mechanical properties of space completely determined by matter, and this is the case only in a space-bounded universe... there is a finite mean density of matter in the universe"Spherical or Elliptical, the equations of Albert Einstein demonstrated that the Universe is Confined, Finite, Circumscribed, Within a Boundary
! Being the Universe as the bodies circumscribed within it, and like their orbits. Hubble complemented Einstein by showing the universe as an expanding, confined balloon. The Bible describes this expansion of the Universe as God extending his tent...
But, how far were the ancient Bible Scholars, when based only on the Bible?THE WATERS ABOVE THE HEAVENS
“And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.”Ps. 148:4, 6a
“Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens… He hath also stablished them for ever and ever…”Job 37:18
“Hast thou with Him spread out the sky?”John Gill
"... Mr. Gregory (in his Notes and Observations, &c. c. 23. p. 110, &c.) is of opinion, that an abyss of waters above the most supreme orb is here meant; or a great deep between the heavens and the heaven of heavens, where, as in storehouses, the depth is laid up; and God has his treasures of snow, hail, and rain, and from whence he brought out the waters which drowned the world at the universal deluge... The Targum is, "ye waters, that by the Word (of the Lord) hang above the heavens", in which is displayed the glory of amazing power, wisdom, and goodness. The most ancient Syrians and Arabians were thoroughly persuaded, that beyond the bounds of the visible heavens there was a great sea, without any limits; which some (Vid. Steeb. Coelum Sephirot. Heb. c. 7. s. 3. p. 126, 127. and Gregory's already mentioned Works…, p. 110) suppose to be the waters here meant"Keil and Delitzsch
"Keerl, [makes] the bold assertion, that the mass of water which came through the windows of heaven at the flood was different from the rain which falls from the clouds, beyond the limits of the terrestrial atmosphere... this notion may also have things for its substance which lie beyond our [current] knowledge of nature. The Scriptures, from the first page to the last, acknowledge the existence of celestial waters, to which the rain-waters stand in the relation as it were of a finger-post pointing upwards (see Gen. 1:7).... for ever and ever (Psa. 111:8), i.e., in order for ever to maintain the position in the whole of creation which He has assigned to them"
Arthur Clarke explains this verse as
“Heavens exceeding heavens (heavens of heavens—the very highest). Systems of systems extending as far beyond the solar system, as it does beyond the lowest deeps… This refers to Gen 1:7, Clouds (Nebulae), vapours, air, exhalations, rain, snow, and meteors (Comets) of every kind.”
C. H. Spurgeon, declared regarding the Biblical Psalm that declares“Let the sea above roar, and the fullness thereof, at the presence of Jehovah, the God of Israel
“There is something of mystery about these supposed reservoirs of water; but let them be what they may, and as they may, they shall give glory to the Lord our God. Let the most unknown and perplexing phenomena take up their parts in the universal praise” ...for “Who layeth the beams of his chambers in the waters…” (Ps 104:3a), Spurgeon comments "His lofty halls are framed with the waters which are above the firmament. The upper rooms of God's great house, the secret stories far above our ken, the palatial chambers wherein he resides, are based upon the floods which form the upper ocean. To the unsubstantial he lends stability; he needs no joists and rafters, for his palace is sustained by his own power."
Albert Barnes adds
“The allusion here is to the waters which seem to be above… which seem to come from some higher region - some higher heaven”
The ISBE (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
) presents the next quotation under the word “Astronomy”, within its subsection III. “Physiography”:
"THE FIRMAMENT. (1) The Hebrew Conception. Above the, spherical earth was stretched out the “firmament” made on the second day of creation to “divide the waters from the waters” (Gen. 16). To the Hebrews the “firmament” was the apparent void above”, (2). And such, “firmament” “should be rendered “expanse” or “space”; it corresponds to the “empty space” of Job 26:7. The “expanse” was appointed to divide “the waters which were under the expanse, from the waters which were above the expanse”; and it has been argued from this that the upper waters must have been regarded as being enclosed in a watertight reservoir, furnished with sluices or floodgates, which could be opened"Job 38:22 and 23
"Hast thou [Job] entered into the treasures of the snow? Or hast thou seen the treasures of the hail, Which I have reserved against the time of trouble, against the day of battle and war?"
Doctor Victor Paul Wierwille exclaimed when he quoted this verse:
"God spoke to Job... Are there treasures in snow and hail? The twenty-third verse is still future. Scientists came up a few years ago with a bold declaration that there are "floating ice cubes" weighing two and three hundred pounds each floating in space. I do not know if they are right or wrong, but my Bible says that there are going to be great hail stones [My comment: huge comets?], "...the treasures of the hail, which I have reserved against the time of trouble...." We simply thrill with the revelation of those men many, many thousands of years ago."Some of those Scholar References
Albert Barnes' Notes on the Bible (found inside e-Sword
Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible. Adam Clarke's 1810/1825 commentary and critical notes on the Bible (found inside both e-Sword
and The Sword Project
John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible (found in e-Sword
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE
), James Orr, M.A., D.D. General Editor; John L. Nuelsen, D.D., LL.D. Edgar Y. Mullins, D.D., LL.D. Assistant Editors; Morris O. Evans, D.D., PhD. Managing Editor; Melvin Grove Kyle, D.D., JJ.D. Revising Editor, 1844-1913 ed (found in e-Sword
Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament (found in e-Sword
The Treasury of David, by C. H. Spurgeon (found in e-Sword
e-Sword, by Rick Meyers, URL: http://www.e-sword.net8-
Dr. V.P. Wierwille. God's Magnified Word. Volume IV, Studies in Abundant Living
. 3rd Printing, 1980. Page 62. [Ref. found here
Dear reader, please, never dismiss useful references, specially the older ones, most specially the Historical references found in the Bible!Sobre el Agua en Marte y en la Luna
[my early institutional publications (in CIATEJ
) on the topic, in Spanish]